Remediation of Paddy Soil Contaminated by Endosulfan Residues by Applying a Combination of Farmyard Manures and Corn Cob Biochar

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Remediation of Paddy Soil Contaminated by Endosulfan Residues by Applying
a Combination of Farmyard Manures and Corn Cob Biochar

Harsanti, E.S.1*),  A.N. Ardiwinata4) and Sri Wahyuni1)
1)Indonesian Agricultural Environment Research Institute
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Abstract

 

Organochlorine insecticides including endosulfan are used intensively since Indonesia’s ‘green revolution’ of the 1960s to 1980s, to reduce yield loss of food crops  due to pest incidence. As one of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) compounds, endosulfan residues are still found in rice fields to the present day although it had already banned. Using organic matter such as biochar and farmyard manures is a remediation strategy to reduce endosulfan concentration in soils. This research was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the concentration of endosulfan residues in paddy soils which applied a combination of farmyard manures and corn cob biochar. The experiment was conducted with a completely randomized design including three replicates and seven treatments that combined farmyard manures and corn cob biochar. The 14-days old seedling of Ciherang variety was transplanted intopots weighing 13 kg with paddy soils. Variables measured were grain yield, yield component, crop agronomic growth, endosulfan concentration in soil, water, grains, microbial population, soil pH, and redox potential. The combination of cattle farmyard manure and biochar with a 4:1 ratio reduced effectively the largest endosulfan residues in the panicle initiation growth phase and maturity growth phase by as much as 68.1% and 62.8%, respectively, compared with treatment of without soil amendment. The largest microbial population in the panicle initiation growth phase was achieved by a treatment that combined cattle farmyard manure and biochar with a 4:1 ratio. The combination of farmyard manure and corn cob biocharreduced a significant amount of endosulfan in percolation waterand rice grains. As well as functioning as a remediator, organic soil amendment which consists of farmyard manure and corn cob biochar improves rice productivity significantly by as much as 8–26%.

Key words: biochar, farmyard manure, endosulfan residue, grain yield

 

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BALAI PENELITIAN LINGKUNGAN PERTANIAN

Indonesian Agricultural Environment Research Institute (IAERI)

 


 

A. Wihardjaka (1) and L.J. Wade (2)
(1)Research Station of Agricultural Environment Preservation

(2)International Rice Research Institute